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Sunday, 7 April 2013

TENUNAN MUGAH/MOGAH

TENUNAN MUGAH/MOGAH


Tenunan Mugah adalah dipercayai telah dibawa daripada Cota Bato, Filipina. Penenun kain ini adalah terdiri daripada golongan bangsawan Kesultanan Sulu yang berkhidmat sebagai penenun kain bangsawan Kesultanan Sulu. Pada masa itu kain Tenunan Mugah digunakan sebagai kain sarung oleh golongan bangsawan Kesultanan Sulu di Filipina.


Pada masa kini, kain Tenunan Mugah diusahakan oleh suku kaum Irranun di Sabah. Ianya diusahakan di beberapa buah kampung di Kota Belud, satu daripadanya adalah Kampung Merabau, satu daerah yang terkenal dengan keluaran hasil tenunan seperti kain Dastar, Mugah, Baraguru, Sambitan, Ampik dan Tapak Sila. Di kampung tersebut nama-nama seperti Hajjah Ramiah Bte Abdullah, Puan Latifah Bte Abdullah, Puan Tiandoong Bte Ashim dan Puan Sabnah Bte Dullah begitu sinonim dengan penghasilan produk tenunan tradisi suku kaum itu. Penggunaan kain Tenunan Mugah telah diubahsuai mengikut peredaran masa. kini kain Tenunan Mugah digunakan sebagai pakaian pengantin suku kaum Irranun di Sabah dan ianya juga dijadikan sebagai pakaian tradisi yang digunakan untuk persembahan tarian pada masa perayaan oleh suku kaum itu.


Pada masa dahulu penghasilan kain Tenunan Mugah menggunakan bahan-bahan yang diproses sendiri. Berbeza dengan masa kini, bahan-bahan keperluan pembuatan kain Tenunan Mugah boleh diperolehi daripada kedai-kedai. Alat tenunan tradisi untuk penghasilan kain Tenunan Mugah dalam bahasa Irranun dipanggil Aulon (Back Strap). Kini penghasilan kain ini boleh dibuat dengan menggunakan alat tenun biasa.


Proses penghasilan kain Tenunan Mugah.

Bahan-bahan yang digunakan.

1. Benang kapas
2. Benang No. 8 – digunakan sebagai benang karat
3. Nasi – digunakan sebagai kanji
4. Lalang – digunakan sebagai kanji
5. Sabut kelapa – digunakan sebagai berus untuk mengkanji benang

Bahan-bahan pewarna.

Bahan pewarna yang digunakan pada masa dahulu adalah bahan tumbuhan semulajadi yang diproses untuk menghasilkan warna yang diperlukan. Berikut adalah bahan tumbuhan yang digunakan untuk penghasilan warna secara tradisional:-

Warna Hitam. Warna Kuning
Tambu Kuning Daun Tagum
Kulit Kayu Kalimbubuk Kunyit
Tanah Lumpur Garam
Kayu Sepang Kapur 
WarnaJingga ( oren ) Warna Merah
Kunyit Kayu Sepang
Kapur Daun Jirak
Limau Air (mengikut banyak benang)
Garam
Warna Hijau
Daun Lada

3. Peralatan yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan kain Tenunan Mugah

Peralatan yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan kain Tenunan Mogah dipanggil Aulon (Alat Tenun). Kek Tenunan tradisional ini terdiri daripada beberapa komponen dan beberapa alat sampingan juga digunakan semasa proses menenun.

Peralatan terdapat pada Aulon ( Alat Tenun )

1. Paguta – alat papan pasong
2. Pasiga – tempat memijak
3. Bubungen – sebagai belira kecil
4. Liliden
5. Bibitan – sebagai anak geliging
6. Saulaya – alat papan pengulung
7. Barira besar
8. Surud – acuan menempatkan gigi loseng
9. Tegganan – sebagai pesak
10. Tulak – alat torok
11. Pelting
12. Dapi – alat tali pinggang

Peralatan sampingan yang digunakan.

1. Buntelah – alat tempat mengkanji benang
2. Bekarah – alat tempat menarai benang
3. Sudan – alat anian
4. Remsah – bekas air
5. Pinggan – tempat meletak kanji




4. Proses pembuatan kain Tenunan Mogah


Berikut adalah turutan proses pembuatan kain Tenunan Moga
1. Tegenan – membahagikan benang
2. Bunserah – mengkanji benang
3. Menyikat – menyikat benang untuk elak kusut
4. Bekarah – menerai benang
5. Pagsud – menganing / mengarak benang
6. Penugit – proses menyampok
7. Palaletag – proses membentang benang loseng
8. Pamerapan – proses menenun kosong / proses menenun corak



5. Teknik pembuatan kain Tenunan Mogah

1. Menenun corak kunyit – empat urat benang satu celah gigi jentera
2. Menenun corak petak kecil (tali-tali) – tiga urat benang satu celah gigi jentera
3. Menenun corak petak besar (tanah) – dua urat benang satu celah gigi jentera



Antara reka corak dan motif yang terdapat pada kain Tenunan Mogah

1. Corak tali-tali (petak kecil)
2. Corak tanah (petak besar)
3. Corak kunyit



Penghasilan kain Tenun Mogah kini adalah terhad. Perkara ini disebabkan para pembuat kain tenunan ini tidak dapat menumpukan sepenuhnya untuk menghasilkan produk kain Tenunan Mogah disebabkan oleh faktor usia. Namun, kain Tenunan Mogah masih boleh diperolehi di daerah Kota Belud, Sabah.



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Wednesday, 27 March 2013

NYIRU

Untuk bahagian kraftangan di rumah kali ini, saya akan memperkenalkan 2 alatan yang sering terdapat di rumah kediaman Dusun Kimaragang.


Saab (kanan), Rilibu/Rolibu (kiri)
Pernah nampak?
Mungkin juga dalam bahasa melayu kedua-duanya dipanggil Nyiru tetapi dibezakan dengan nyiru bulat atau nyiru bujur. Bagi orang Kimaragang, nyiru yang bulat dipanggil Saab dan Rilibu bagi yang bujur. Kegunaanya juga hampir sama tetapi masih ada bezanya. Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk “mangatap” atau dalam bahasa melayunya menampi padi. Tetapi biasanya, apa yang selalu saya aplikasikan, saab akan digunakan untuk “mangatap” padi yang baru dituai dan telah dipisahkan dari tangkainya dan bertujuan untuk mengasingkan biji padi yang berisi dengan yang kosong. Rilibu pula sesuai digunakan untuk “mangatap” beras yang telah diproses (ditumbuk menggunakan lesung dan kayu penumbuk atau  digiling) untuk mengasingkan hampas-hampas kulit padi atau “tapol”. Selain itu, rilibu juga sering digunakan untuk kerja “meniri” oleh orang Kimaragang. Proses meniri ini adalah proses mengasingkan beras dengan biji-biji padi yang tidak lumat selepas menumbuk padi. Proses meniri memerlukan kemahiran yang tinggi. Biasanya, dalam proses ini, beras akan dipaksa untuk berada di depan rilibu dan biji-biji padi pula akan ke belakang rilibu melalui gerakan -kiri, tengah dan kanan-. Proses meniri yang mengambil masa 15 minit, atau juga 30 minit (bergantung kepada kemahiran individu dan jumlah beras dalam rilibu) dan akan menghasilkan irama yang mengasyikkan.

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SIRUNG

Kraftangan di rumah kediaman Dusun Kimaragang kali ini akan membawakan tentang Sirung (Conical hat). Sirung diperbuat daripada rotan dan seperti juga alatan atau kraftangan yang lain memerlukan kepakaran yang tinggi untuk menghasilkannya. 

Pelbagai aneka Sirung.
(gambar dari google image)

Sirung, pada zaman kanak-kanak saya, hanyalah berwarna kosong, tetapi kini sudah pelbagai. Sepanjang pengalaman saya, sirung ini digunakan oleh masyarakat Dusun Kimaragang sebagai alat untuk melindungi kepala daripada terik matahari ketika pergi “mongumo”- bekerja atau bercucuk tanam di ladang atau kebun. Boleh dikatakan, sirung ini sama fungsinya dengan topi yang ada pada masa sekarang. Selain daripada itu, sirung juga boleh dijadikan sebagai tudung saji. 

Kini Sirung jarang sekali digunakan untuk ke ladang (emak saya sendiri juga sudah tidak pernah menggunakannya lagi). Sirung kini biasanya dijadikan hiasan dinding rumah.

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Thursday, 7 March 2013

ALAT MUZIK BAMBU


DRUMS

Usually found in gong ensemble. They produce a distinctive rhythmic musical pattern, leading to the festive dances which they accompany an air of urgency or heightened sense of excitement as the case may be.

Single-headed drums come mainly from the interior. For example, the tontog of the Rungus or the karatung of the Tambunan Kadazan Dusuns.

Double headed drums are found in coastal areas as well as the interior, for example, the gandang of the bajau. The membranes covering the drumheads used to be made of goat or deer skin, or cowhide.
  

TONGKUNGON

Prevalent mainly amongst the Kadazan Dusun in Tambunan, Penampang and Tuaran. It is made from a large bamboo tube with thin strips cut in its surface to form its strings, which can be tuned with tiny pieces of wood/ cane at each end of the tongkungon. The names and number of this string correspond to the main gongs.

Though it is mainly played solo and for personal entertainment, its music can accompany dance in the absence of gong ensembles.


SUNDATANG

A long-necked strummed lute found amongst Dusunic peoples. It is made of jackfruit wood two or three brass strings.

The sundatang of the Penampang Kadazan Dusun, the Lotud-Dusun (who call it gagayan) and the Rungus are more widely played than that of the Kadazan Dusuns of Tambunan. The Tambunan sundatang has a small body and a neck over one metre long.

It can be played for personal entertainment or as a dance accompaniment (in the Tambunan magarang and in Tuaran where it is sometimes played in pairs).
 

AEROPHONES: Instruments with a column of air within a cylinder or cone. The sound is produced when this air is vibrate by the player’s lips or nose or a single/double reed or by air passing across the top of the tube. Sabah’s aerophones are mainly played solo and for personal pleasure.

SULING






 
Short bamboo mouth flute brown from the end with fives holes ( Tambunan ) or six holes (Penampang). The sound produced is soothing.
  
TURALI Bamboo Nose flute

This is common to Dusunic communities. The Tambunan Kadazan Dusuns call it turali or turahi whilst in Penampang, it is called tuahi. It is widely played for personal entertainment, except in Penampang and the central part of Tambunan where it expresses grief after a death.

The story behind the origin of the turali is that once upon a time there was a man who had 7 sons and no daughters. When both parents died due to some illness, the sons were very grieved. However, as men and warriors, they could not cry. To express their great sorrow and grief for the death of their parents, they made and played the turali.
 
BUNGKAU

Bungkau Jew’s Harp (Uriding, Lotud-Dusuns) is widely found throughout Sabah. Made from polod palm wood. It is small and is held between the teeth. Its central lamella vibrates when the end of the instrument is hit. The sound is then resonated by the mouth to produce a wide spectrum of sounds.

It is versalite as a device to attract edible lizards, in farewell and battle songs, for post rice harvesting celebrations and to imitate gong ensemble music.


 SOMPOTON
  
Traditional this was from Kampung Tikolod, Tambunan. It is now prevalent among Dusuns and some Muruts.

It is made of a double raft of eight bamboo pipes inserted into a gourd. Inside the gourd seven of the pipes have small polod palm lamellae or sodi inserted into their sides and kept in place by beeswax ofr sopinit. The eighth soundless pipe is stopped up with sopinit.

The player blows and sucks air through the gourd mouthpiece to activate the sodi. The musical sound produced can be likened to a cross between the sounds from a conventional mouth organ and a bagpipe, minus the latters’ shrillness. Often it is played solo, for personal expression.

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Friday, 25 January 2013

DAPATKAN KRAF TANGAN DI KEDAI SHC

SEBAGAI MAKLUMAN KEPADA PENCINTA SENI KRAFTANGAN TEMPATAN ANDA BOLEH LAH DATANG KE KEDAI / PERMIS SABAH HANDICRAFT COLLECTION (SHC) YANG TERLETAK DI PERKARANGAN BANGUNAN LEMBAGA KEBUDAYAAN NEGERI SABAH. PELBAGAI JENIS HASIL SENI KRAFTANGAN TEMPATAN DIJUAL DI SINI. DAPATKAN HASIL KRAFTANGAN UNTUK PERHIASAN, CENDERAHATI ATAU UNTUK TUJUAN LAIN DI PERMIS SHC.

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Thursday, 3 January 2013

TAGUNGGAK , SUNDATANG DAN TONGKUNGON


TAGUNGGAK

Taggunggak is a set of traditional musical instrument made from large bamboo culms.  It was called tagunggak (or bamboo gongs) amongst the Murut, togunggak amongst the Dusun/Kadazan or ‘togunggu’ in Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia.    One set comprises from six (togunggu’) to thirty (tagunggak) pieces, depending on the ethnic group. The music resembles that of the set of gongs of the particular group, with each idiophone tuned according to the corresponding gong part it plays. The Tagunggak is played by a group of musician to accompany dancing or processions at the ethnic group festival occasions.  

Sundatang

Pengenalan
Diperbuat dari kayu bernama tembailing atau kayu nangka. Ia mempunyai dua atau tiga tali loyang diperbuat dari akar polon.

Fungsi
Di Tambunan ianya dimainkan untuk mengiring tarian sundatang magarang. Ianya dimainkan juga untuk hiburan persendirian dimainkan secara solo tanpa diiringi oleh suara.

Cara Bermain
Ia dimainkan dengan memetik tali loyang dan nada tali-talinya dibetulkan dengan memutarkan skru kayu telinga di atas alat ini.
The Sundatang is originally a 2 stringed instrument crafted from a solid block of wood and it is used for ceremonial celebration by the ethnic people of Sabah in East Malaysia. This instrument is a close cousin of the Sape of Sarawak and the Kutiyapi of the Pilipino people. I redesigned it to be 3 stringed instrument with frets and proper bridge, holding the strings in tune with good and sustained acoustic sound qualities. 

Tongkungon
TONGKUNGON
Bamboo really is a grass, the biggest grass in the world – technically speaking it belongs to the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Some of its members are giants, forming by far the largest members of the grass family. Bamboos are defined as plants that have segmented, typically hollow, woody stems that sprout from underground rhizomes. Bamboos flower at intervals of up to 10 years, after which the plant may die. 

Bamboos grow mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America. There are around 91 genera and more than 1000 species of bamboos known in the world, and the Forestry Research Centre in Sepilok has recorded a total of 36 species for Sabah.

The bamboo species in Borneo have been in the region long enough to be indigenous, although some species may have been imported from other countries over the past three thousand years, such as Gigantochloa balui. However, proper evidence is lacking.

The local people in Borneo have made wide usage of bamboos, a very versatile, as well as abundant and fast growing source of food, medicine, building material, and raw material for all sorts of daily implements, from cooking containers to ceremonial knives.

Local Bamboo Names

Some of the bamboos found in Sabah, with their local names: K = Kadazan (Penampang area); D = Dusun (generic if no area defined); R = Rungus; M = Murut

Uga’ding (K); Rugading (D)
Schizostachyum brachycladum

This is “Yellow Bamboo”, mostly found around and in cemeteries, and nowadays in landscaping. Its culm is a bright light yellow with attractive green striations, giving it a very elegant look. I have found that in Tambunan people make suki (cups) during weddings for serving rice wine. Unfortunately the suki do not last, the bamboo curls and splits when drying up, and its colour becomes an uninteresting grey-brown.

Poing (K); Poring (D)
Gigantochloa levis, 15 to 30 meters high, culm diameter up to 20 cm   

Called ‘poring’ in most Dusun isoglots, this is the biggest and strongest bamboo in Sabah; it is used in buildings, from temporary stilts (in pondok), to permanent flooring and walling (Kadazan Penampang usage) and even roof tiling (Tamparuli). Instruments are made from poing, such as the tongkungon (zither / chordophone) and the togunggu’ (an idiophone, known as tagunggak amongst the Murut and togunggak amongst the Dusun), and many more daily implements – there are no limits to its usage. The shoots (sokok) are collected as food.

This bamboo has a particularity: it is not attacked by any bore-worm, and even in the open deteriorates very slowly. Floors and walls, as well as other implements made from this particular bamboo might last, without further treatment, up to thirty years.  
Tamahang (K); Tamalang (D); Rugading Tamalang Silou (D – the yellow variant)
Bambusa vulagris, up to 15 meters high, culm diameter up to 6 cm

Usually to be found along rivers, tamahang can be confused with poing, but it is smaller and its sokok (shoots) is very bitter. Tamahang is used in the constructions of fences that will last about three to six months.

Note: there are certain times when this bamboo (and also other species) cannot be cut: if cut before full moon, bore-worms attack the wood and lay their eggs. The hatching larvae will quickly deteriorate the bamboo. If cut after the full moon (after the bore-worms have laid their eggs), the bamboo lasts longer. 

Bahui (K); Balui (D Moyog); Malui (D); Rugading Balui (D – if yellow)
Gigantochloa balui, 15 to 18 meters high, culm diameter up to 10 cm, thick wall

A green, sometimes yellow, thick-walled bamboo with no particular usage, but may be used to make a straw to drink tapai (siopon), and a sharp knife/spear to kill pigs. Can be confused with rugading but its walls are much thicker.

Humbising (K); Sumbiling (D)
Schizostachyum lima, up to 12 meters

A thin bamboo that is also referred to as ‘sumbiling’. The Kadazan and Dusun used to make a certain type of ‘knife’ to kill pigs, and a sumbiling spear kills better than others because of natural poisons in the bamboo; it can be used to make instruments such as the sompoton (an aerophone), the turali (‘nose-flute’, an aerophone) and the suling (an end-blown flute). It may also be used to make straws to drink tapai (siopon).

Wulu (K); Tulu (D); Rugading Tulu (D – if yellow)
Schizostachyum brachycladum, up to 13 meters high, culm diameter up to 6cm

A bamboo that an untrained eye easily confuses with poring or even rugading in its yellow form but it is much lighter. Often used as a ‘cooking pot’ for glutinous rice, to make water containers and baskets.

Tombotuon / Tombutuong (D)
Schiyostachzum blumei, up to 5 meters high, culm 2 cm

Bamboo with spiny branches, and middle branches can branch again; seldom used but finds its application as a ‘straw’ to drink rice wine. It can be confused with sumbiling and tulu rugading but tombotuon has thicker walls.

Wadan (D)
Dinochloa trichogona – Borneo climbing/scrambling bamboo; D scabrida; D sublaevigata

Sap (wadan) is used as an eye drop; no further information (27/03/07).

Tongkungon (D)
Bambusa blumeana, up to 22 meters high, culm diameter up to 20 cm

Famous for its shoots, which are sweeter than those of poring. As the name indicates, this bamboo is used to make the tongkungon, a bamboo zither and also the tagunggak (the bamboo gongs), two types of indigenous instruments. However, poring (Gigantochloa levis), which is more readily available is also used.    


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ASAL USUL ALAT MUZIK BAMBU


Asal Usul Alat Muzik Bambu
There are numerous types of bamboo flutes made all over the world, such as the dizi, xiao, shakuhachi, palendag and jinghu. In India, it is a very popular and highly respected musical instrument, available even to the poorest and the choice of many highly venerated maestros of classical music. It is known and revered above all as the divine flute forever associated with Lord Krishna, who is always portrayed holding a bansuri in sculptures and paintings. Four of the instruments used in Polynesia for traditional hula are made of bamboo: nose flute, rattle, stamping pipes and the jaw harp. Bamboo may be used in the construction of the Australian didgeridoo instead of the more traditional eucalyptus wood. In Indonesia and the Philippines, bamboo has been used for making various kinds of musical instruments, including the kolintang, angklung and bumbong.
Bamboo is also used to make slit drums. Traditional Philippine banda kawayan (bamboo bands) use a variety of bamboo musical instruments, including the marimba, angklung, panpipes and bumbong, as well as bamboo versions of western instruments, such as clarinets, saxophones, and tubas.[2] The Las Piñas Bamboo Organ in the Philippines has pipes made of bamboo culms. The modern amplified string instrument, the Chapman stick, is also constructed using bamboo. The khene (also spelled khaen, kaen and khen; Lao: ແຄນ, Thai: แคน) is a mouth organ of Lao origin whose pipes, which are usually made of bamboo, are connected with a small, hollowed-out hardwood reservoir into which air is blown, creating a sound similar to that of the violin. In the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar, the valiha, a long tube zither made of a single bamboo stalk, is considered the national instrument.
Bamboo has also recently been used for the manufacture of guitars and ukuleles. Bamboo Ukuleles are constructed of solid cross laminated bamboo strips not plywood. The bamboo solid wood strips are similar to bamboo manufactured flooring. In addition to their strength, bamboo ukuleles have excellent sound & rival ukuleles made out of more traditional woods like Mahogany and KOA. Bamboo makes an excellent choice for an eco-friendly cost conscious ukulele aficionados.

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